CO2 and Climate Protection

Cement production causes approximately 5% of global man-made CO2 emissions. Ca. 50% of emissions are process emissions that happen during clinker production, 40% come from the burning of the fuels to heat the cement kiln, and ca. 10% come from electricity use and transportation. 

Demand for cement is forecast to continue increasing worldwide, in particular in emerging economies where much needed housing and infrastructure boosts development. The reduction of CO2 emissions from cement production is therefore an important and urgent task for the cement sector.


The CSI member companies have been addressing CO2 reduction since the start of the initiative. They measure and report their emissions following the same protocol, the CSI’s Cement CO2 and Energy Protocol, and they have set individual targets to reduce CO2 intensity.

The CSI’s work, and other sources, has identified four main levers for CO2 reductions:

  • Energy efficiency, via modern dry-process technology
  • The use of Alternative fuels (incl. biomass) to replace coal and petcoke in the cement kiln heating process
  • The substitution of clinker with other mineral components in cement
  • Carbon capture and storage