Cement manufacture is resource and energy intensive. It produces significant releases to the environment, primarily as airborne emissions. Emissions measurement, monitoring and reporting contributes to understanding, documenting and improving the industry's environmental performance. Lack of emissions information can lead to local concerns about plant operations.
The CSI Guidelines for Emissions Monitoring and Reporting in the Cement Industry identify the specific pollutants and emission sources which all CSI member companies have agreed to monitor. It covers cement plant main stack emissions, as these are the largest single point source, may have a significant impact on the environment, and can be quantified with reasonable effort and accuracy.
The objectives of the guidelines are to:
- Encourage uniform monitoring and reporting of cement process emissions.
- Provide credible, relevant, and easily understandable information on emissions.
- Provide internal management with a tool for gathering relevant information to plan cement emissions monitoring and reporting.
The guidelines have been updated in 2012, to take into account the experience gained during implementation and evaluation of the first guidelines and of the development of the regulatory framework in the years since. The main changes from the previous guidelines are the requirement for continuous emission monitoring of main kiln stack emissions (NOx, SOx, dust), recommendation for continuous monitoring of VOCs and regular measurement of mercury, PCDD/Fs and metals (volatile and other heavy metals).
The guidelines provide increased precision on measurement standards, and options on the type of equipment to be used.
CSI member companies have committed to implementing the new guidelines by the end of 2015.
The table below summarizes the commitments CSI member companies have taken on emissions and the main changes between the old and the new emissions guidelines (the detailed status of companies’ commitments can be viewed on the CSI website):
Comparison of CSI emissions guidelines 2005 and 2012
|Issue||2005 emissions guidelines||2012 emissions guidelines|
||Recommended frequency of measurements: Continuously, but at least once a year||The use of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) technology is mandatory (to be implemented by the end of 2015)|
|KPI: % clinker produced with continuous monitoring of major emissions|
|KPI: Published reduction targets for major emissions|
|Other pollutants2||Recommended frequency of measurements:Status analysis (fingerprint) for each kiln. Repeated analysis necessary, if significant changes in process, raw material composition, fuels or operations occur||Frequency of measurements:Continuously or at least once a year for VOC; once a year for Mercury3; once every two years for Dioxins/ Furans and all other heavy metals|
|KPI: % of clinker produced with monitoring of major and minor emissions|
- Main pollutants: Dust / particulate matter; Oxides of nitrogen and other nitrogen compounds (NOx), Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds (SOx)
- Other pollutants: Trace metals and their compounds (Hg, Cd and Tl as a minimum in 2005 guidelines; also all other heavy metals in 2012 guidelines: Sb, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Dioxins/Furans (PCDD/Fs)
- If the plant emission level is below 25 μg/Nm3, measurements should be conducted at least once every two years